Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)

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Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)

 

The CMMI was created to be a model to help organizations improve development and maintenance processes and deliverable quality. The CMMI aims at leading the way from ad-hoc processes to mature, capable processes by performing activities guided by directions in process areas and five levels of maturity or capability. The key elements of each level are called Process Areas. More capable process produce, shorter development cycle times, systems without defects, predicable process performance, and adapted products and services that better meet customers’ requirements is the goal with adopting the CMMI. The CMMI aims at providing organizations with abilities to better plan and manage their development and maintenance.

 

 

 

Organizations have to choose from one of two paths to follow when starting using

 

CMMI

 

1) Continuous Representation

 

The continuous representation or the staged representation. The two paths offer a slightly different approach to take on CMMI. If choosing the continuous representation there is a lot of flexibility and doing things in different rates, and is suitable if it is clear which processes that are problematic. With the continuous representation the organization is going through capability levels.

 

2) Staged Representation

 

The staged representation is a systematic, structured approach that leads from one stage making sure the ground is laid for the next. The maturity levels contain specific process areas that need to develop and gain certain maturity to be able to go to the next level. This path is more fixed and is suitable to an organization that does not know where to start the improvement work

 

 

 

The model components

 

The model components of the CMMI are grouped into categories that reflect how they are supposed to be interpreted; there are required, expected and informative components. The required components in the CMMI are the specific and generic goals that represent what an organization must do to satisfy a process area.

 

Expected components include the generic and specific practices and are a guide to what an organization need to implement to achieve the specific and generic goals. Informative components are detailed information on, for example, work products, sub practices, amplifications, generic practice titles, goal and practice notes, and references.

 

The term process area is a key element in the CMMI. A process area is a collection of related practices in an area that is considered crucial to improve the specific area. The

 

CMMI for development version 1.2 includes 22 process areas, for example configuration management, measurement and analysis and organizational process definition. For every process area there is a purpose statement. This is an informative component. The goals, are of course, of major importance. The specific goals are characteristics that must be present to have satisfied a process area. The specific goals are not the same for two different process areas, whereas the generic goals can be the same for multiple process areas. The generic goals function is to describe what must be in place for the process 14 areas to be institutionalized. With the specific and generic goals comes a specific and generic practice. The practices are activities considered important to accomplish the goals.

 

 

Category

Process Area

Process Management

Organizational Process Focus
Organizational Process Definition
Organizational Training
Organizational Process Performance
Organizational Innovation and Deployment

Project Management

Project Planning
Project Monitoring and Control
Supplier Agreement Management
Integrated Project Management for IPPD
Risk Management
Quantitative Project Management

Engineering

Requirements Management
Requirements Development
Technical Solution
Product Integration
Verification
Validation

Support

Configuration Management
Process and Product Quality Assurance
Measurement and Analysis
Decision Analysis and Resolution
Causal Analysis and Resolution

 

 

 

Capability and maturity levels

 

Organizations using the continuous representation are guided by the capability levels. All the CMMI models reflect capability levels. Each capability level has implemented in a process area its associated generic goals and practices. For each process area the organization climbs the capability levels in order to improve and institutionalize the processes. There are six capability levels numbered from 0-5:

 

0. Incomplete

 

When at incomplete capability level, processes are incomplete; they are not fully performed and are missing generic goals and perhaps even some specific goals.

 

1. Performed

 

A performed process is a process that satisfies the specific goals of the process area. The generic practice of this capability level helps institutionalizing the improvements to make sure they are followed at all times.

 

2. Managed

 

Managed processes means that the processes are not just being performed but also managed. That is they have an infrastructure and are controlled, monitored and guided by important objectives of the organization. The process has a basic infrastructure and is planned and executed in line with organisational policy.

 

3. Defined

 

Defined processes follow standards, process descriptions and procedures for the project and are tailored from the organizations set of standard processes. The processes at this level are carefully described and documented for every aspect they include.

 

4. Quantitatively Managed

 

At level 4 the processes are controlled using quantitative techniques. From experience objectives are established and for a process, quantitative data can be analyzed to manage the process.

 

5. Optimizing

 

Improvement in capability level 5 is about understanding inherent variations in process and optimizing them with that knowledge.

 

 

 

There are five maturity levels:

 

1. Initial

 

At maturity level 1processes are ad hoc and uncontrolled. Organizations on maturity level 1 significantly exceed budgets and cannot hold timeframes in schedules. They do get products finished but it all depends on heroic achievements of employees and successes are hard to repeat.

 

2. Managed

 

At level 2 processes and practices based on policies are established. Projects are monitored and managed according to skills of employees, documentation, stakeholders etc. At stressful times practices are retained and no chaos is to emerge.

 

3. Defined

 

At maturity level 3 processes are described in more detail compared to level 2. The processes are more sophisticated; more organized and have an organizational identity.

 

The organization has its own set of standard processes that are profoundly grounded in the organization.

 

4. Quantitatively Managed

 

At maturity level 4, the organization establishes quantitative objectives for quality and process performance and uses them as criteria in managing processes. The quantitative objectives are based on information on what customers, end users, organization and implementers need. This way quality and process performance is managed and understood in statistical terms.

 

5. Optimizing

 

“Maturity level 5 focuses on continually improving process performance through incremental and innovative process and technological improvements.”

 

 

 

Level

Focus

Process Area

5 Optimizing

Continuous Process Improvement

Organizational Innovation and Deployment
Causal Analysis and Resolution

4 Quantitatively Managed

Quantitative Management

Organizational Process Performance
Quantitative Project Management

3 Defined

Process Standardization

Requirements Development
Technical Solution
Product Integration
Verification
Validation
Organizational Process Focus
Organizational Process Definition
Organizational Training Integrated Project Management for IPPD
Risk Management
Decision Analysis and Resolution

2 Managed

Basic Project Management

Requirements Management
Project Planning
Project Monitoring and Control
Supplier Agreement Management
Measurement and Analysis
Process and Product Quality Assurance
Configuration Management

1 Initial Process